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Player Characters

How to Create a Player Character

First, you will need a piece of paper to write down the character’s statistics on. You may use a pre-printed character sheet if one is available, or you may simply use a piece of notebook paper. An example character is shown below. You should use a pencil to write down all information, as any statistic may change during play.

Roll 3d6 for each ability score, as described in the Character Abilities section, and write the results after the names of the abilities. Write down the scores in the order you roll them; if you are unhappy with the scores you have rolled, ask your Game Master for advice, as he or she may allow some form of point or score exchanging.

Write down the ability score bonus (or penalty) for each score beside the score itself, as shown on the table on the next page.

Choose a race and class for your character. Your character must meet the Prime Requisite minimum for a class, as described in the Character Classes section, in order to be a member of that class. Also note that there are minimum (and maximum) ability requirements for the various races which must be met, as described in the Character Races section.

Write down the special abilities of your race and class choices, as described below. If you have chosen to play a Magic-User, ask your Game Master what spell or spells your character knows; it’s up to the Game Master to decide this, but he or she may allow you to choose one or more spells yourself.

Note on your character sheet that your character has zero (0) experience points (or XP); also you may want to note the number needed to advance to second level, as shown in the table for your class.

Roll the hit die appropriate for your class, adding your Constitution bonus or penalty, and note the result as your hit points on your character sheet. Note that, should your character have a Constitution penalty, the penalty will not lower any hit die roll below 1 (so if your Character has a -2 penalty for Constitution, and you roll a 2, the total is adjusted to 1).

Roll for your starting money. Generally your character will start with 3d6 times 10 gold pieces, but ask the Game Master before rolling.

Now, purchase equipment for your character, as shown in the Cost of Weapons and Equipment section, below. Write your purchases on your character sheet, and note how much money remains afterward. Make sure you understand the weapon and armor restrictions for your class and race before making your purchases.

Since you now know what sort of armor your character is wearing, you should note your Armor Class on your character sheet. Don’t forget to add your Dexterity bonus or penalty to the figure.

Look up your character’s attack bonus (from the table in the Encounter section) and note it on your character sheet. Don’t add your ability bonuses (or penalties) to this figure, as you will add a different bonus (Strength or Dexterity) depending on the sort of weapon you use in combat (i.e. melee or missile weapon).

Also look up your saving throws (from the tables near the end of the Encounter section) and note them on your character sheet. Adjust the saving throw figures based on your race, if your character is a demi-human (see Character Races, below). Please note that the saving throw bonuses for demi-humans are presented as "plus" values, to be added to the die roll; for convenience, you may simply subtract them from the saving throw numbers on the character sheet instead.

Finally, if you haven’t done so already, name your character. This often takes longer than all the other steps combined.

Character Abilities

Each character will have a score ranging from 3 to 18 in each of the following abilities. A bonus or penalty is associated with each score, as shown on the table below. Each class has a Prime Requisite ability score, which must be at least 9 in order for the character to become a member of that class; also, there are required minimum and maximum scores for each character race other than Humans, as described under Character Races, below.

Ability Score Bonus/Penalty
3 -3
4-5 -2
6-8 -1
9-12 0
13-15 +1
16-17 +2
18 +3

Strength: As the name implies, this ability measures the character’s raw physical power. Strength is the Prime Requisite for Fighters. Apply the ability bonus or penalty for Strength to all attack and damage rolls in melee (hand to hand) combat. Note that a penalty here will not reduce damage from a successful attack below one point in any case (see the Combat section for details).

Intelligence: This is the ability to learn and apply knowledge. Intelligence is the Prime Requisite for Magic-Users. The ability bonus for Intelligence is added to the number of languages the character is able to learn to read and write; if the character has an Intelligence penalty, he or she cannot read more than a word or two, and will only know his or her native language.

Wisdom: A combination of intuition, willpower and common sense. Wisdom is the Prime Requisite for Clerics. The Wisdom bonus or penalty may apply to some saving throws vs. magical attacks, particularly those affecting the target’s will.

Dexterity: This ability measures the character’s quickness and balance as well as aptitude with tools. Dexterity is the Prime Requisite for Thieves. The Dexterity bonus or penalty is applied to all attack rolls with missile (ranged) weapons, to the character’s Armor Class value, and to the character’s Initiative die roll.

Constitution: A combination of general health and vitality. Apply the Constitution bonus or penalty to each hit die rolled by the character. Note that a penalty here will not reduce any hit die roll to less than 1 point.

Charisma: This is the ability to influence or even lead people; those with high Charisma are well-liked, or at least highly respected. Apply the Charisma bonus or penalty to reaction rolls. Also, the number of retainers a character may hire, and the loyalty of those retainers, is affected by Charisma.

Hit Points and Hit Dice

When a character is injured, he or she loses hit points from his or her current total. Note that this does not change the figure rolled, but rather reduces the current total; healing will restore hit points, up to but not exceeding the rolled figure.

When his or her hit point total reaches 0, your character may be dead. This may not be the end for the character; don’t tear up the character sheet.

First level characters begin play with a single hit die of the given type, plus the Constitution bonus or penalty, with a minimum of 1 hit point. Each time a character gains a level, the player should roll another hit die and add the character’s Constitution bonus or penalty, with the result again being a minimum of 1 point. Add this amount to the character’s maximum hit points figure. Note that, after 9th level, characters receive a fixed number of hit points each level, as shown in the advancement table for the class, and no longer add the Constitution bonus or penalty.


All characters begin the game knowing their native language. In most campaign worlds, Humans all (or nearly all) speak the same language, often called “Common.” Each demi-human race has its own language, i.e. Elvish, Dwarvish, or Halfling, and members of the demi-human races begin play knowing both their own language and Common (or the local Human language if it isn’t called Common).

Characters with Intelligence of 13 or higher may choose to begin the game knowing one or more languages other than those given above; the number of additional languages that may be learned is equal to the Intelligence bonus (+1, +2, or +3). Characters may choose to learn other demi-human languages, as well as humanoid languages such as Orc, Goblin, etc. The GM will decide which humanoid languages may be learned. The player may choose to leave one or more bonus language “slots” open, to be filled during play. Some Game Masters may even allow player characters to learn exotic languages such as Dragon; also, “dead” or otherwise archaic languages might be allowed to more scholarly characters.

Character Races


Description: Dwarves are a short, stocky race; both male and female Dwarves stand around four feet tall and typically weigh around 120 pounds. Their long hair and thick beards are dark brown, gray or black. They take great pride in their beards, sometimes braiding or forking them. They have a fair to ruddy complexion. Dwarves have stout frames and a strong, muscular build. They are rugged and resilient, with the capacity to endure great hardships. Dwarves are typically practical, stubborn and courageous. They can also be introspective, suspicious and possessive. They have a lifespan of three to four centuries.

Restrictions: Dwarves may become Clerics, Fighters, or Thieves. They are required to have a minimum Constitution of 9. Due to their generally dour dispositions, they may not have a Charisma higher than 17. They may not employ Large weapons more than four feet in length (specifically, two-handed swords, polearms, and longbows).

Special Abilities: All Dwarves have Darkvision with a 60′ range, and are able to detect slanting passages, traps, shifting walls and new construction on a roll of 1-2 on 1d6; a search must be performed before this roll may be made.

Saving Throws: Dwarves save at +4 vs. Death Ray or Poison, Magic Wands, Paralysis or Petrify, and Spells, and at +3 vs. Dragon Breath.


Description:Elves are a slender race, with both genders standing around five feet tall and weighing around 130 pounds. Most have dark hair, with little or no body or facial hair. Their skin is pale, and they have pointed ears and delicate features. Elves are lithe and graceful. They have keen eyesight and hearing. Elves are typically inquisitive, passionate, self-assured, and sometimes haughty. Their typical lifespan is a dozen centuries or more.

Restrictions: Elves may become Clerics, Fighters, Magic-Users or Thieves; they are also allowed to combine the classes of Fighter and Magic-User, and of Magic-User and Thief (see Combination Classes, below). They are required to have a minimum Intelligence of 9. Due to their generally delicate nature, they may not have a Constitution higher than 17. Elves never roll larger than six-sided dice (d6) for hit points.

Special Abilities: All Elves have Darkvision with a 60′ range. They are able to find secret doors more often than normal (1-2 on 1d6 rather than the usual 1 on 1d6). An Elf is so observant that one has a 1 on 1d6 chance to find a secret door with a cursory look. Elves are immune to the paralyzing attack of ghouls. Also, they are less likely to be surprised in combat, reducing the chance of surprise by 1 in 1d6.

Saving Throws: Elves save at +1 vs. Paralysis or Petrify, and +2 vs. Magic Wands and Spells.


Description: Halflings are small, slightly stocky folk who stand around three feet tall and weigh about 60 pounds. They have curly brown hair on their heads and feet, but rarely have facial hair. They are usually fair skinned, often with ruddy cheeks. Halflings are remarkably rugged for their small size. They are dexterous and nimble, capable of moving quietly and remaining very still. They usually go barefoot. Halflings are typically outgoing, unassuming and good-natured. They live about a hundred years.

Restrictions: Halflings may become Clerics, Fighters or Thieves. They are required to have a minimum Dexterity of 9. Due to their small stature, they may not have a Strength higher than 17. Halflings never roll larger than six-sided dice (d6) for hit points regardless of class. Halflings may not use Large weapons, and must wield Medium weapons with both hands.

Special Abilities: Halflings are unusually accurate with all sorts of ranged weapons, gaining a +1 attack bonus when employing them. When attacked in melee by creatures larger than man-sized, Halflings gain a +2 bonus to their Armor Class. Halflings are quick-witted, thus adding +1 to Initiative die rolls. Outdoors in their preferred forest terrain, they are able to hide very effectively; so long as they remain still there is only a 10% chance they will be detected. Even indoors, in dungeons or in non-preferred terrain they are able to hide such that there is only a 30% chance of detection. Note that a Halfling Thief will roll only once, using either the Thief ability or the Halfling ability, whichever is better.

Saving Throws: Halflings save at +4 vs. Death Ray or Poison, Magic Wands, Paralysis or Petrify, and Spells, and at +3 vs. Dragon Breath.


Description: Humans come in a broad variety of shapes and sizes; the Game Master must decide what sorts of Humans live in the game world. An average Human male in good health stands around six feet tall and weighs about 175 pounds. Most Humans live around 75 years.

Restrictions: Humans may be any single class. They have no minimum or maximum ability score requirements.

Special Abilities: Humans learn unusually quickly, gaining a bonus of 10% to all experience points earned.

Saving Throws: Humans are the “standard,” and thus have no saving throw bonuses.

Combination Classes

To become a member of a combination class, a character must meet the requirements of both classes. Combination class characters use the best attack bonus and the best saving throw values of their original two classes, but must gain experience equal to the combined requirements of both base classes to advance in levels. Elves are the only characters eligible to be a member of one of these combination classes:

Fighter/Magic-User: These characters may both fight and cast magic spells; further, they are allowed to cast magic spells while wearing armor. These characters roll six-sided dice (d6) for hit points.

Magic-User/Thief: Members of this combination class may cast spells while wearing leather armor, and may use any weapon. These characters roll four-sided dice (d4) for hit points.

Character Classes

Level XP Spells Hit Dice 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 0 1d6
2 1,500 2d6 1
3 3,000 3d6 2
4 6,000 4d6 2 1
5 12,000 5d6 2 2
6 24,000 6d6 2 2 1
7 48,000 7d6 3 2 2
8 90,000 8d6 3 2 2 1
9 180,000 9d6 3 3 2 2
10 270,000 9d6+1 3 3 2 2 1
11 360,000 9d6+2 4 3 3 2 2
12 450,000 9d6+3 4 4 3 2 2 1
13 540,000 9d6+4 4 4 3 3 2 2
14 630,000 9d6+5 4 4 4 3 2 2
15 720,000 9d6+6 4 4 4 3 3 2
16 810,000 9d6+7 5 4 4 3 3 2
17 900,000 9d6+8 5 5 4 3 3 2
18 990,000 9d6+9 5 5 4 4 3 3
19 1,080,000 9d6+10 6 5 4 4 3 3
20 1,170,000 9d6+11 6 5 5 4 3 3

Clerics are those who have devoted themselves to the service of a deity, pantheon or other belief system. Most Clerics spend their time in mundane forms of service such as preaching and ministering in a temple; but there are those who are called to go abroad from the temple and serve their deity in a more direct way, smiting undead monsters and aiding in the battle against evil and chaos. Player character Clerics are assumed to be among the latter group.

Clerics fight about as well as Thieves, but not as well as Fighters. They are hardier than Thieves, at least at lower levels, as they are accustomed to physical labor that the Thief would deftly avoid. Clerics can cast spells of divine nature starting at 2nd level, and they have the power to Turn the Undead, that is, to drive away undead monsters by means of faith alone (see the Encounter section for details).

The Prime Requisite for Clerics is Wisdom; a character must have a Wisdom score of 9 or higher to become a Cleric. They may wear any armor, but may only use blunt weapons (specifically including warhammer, mace, maul, club, quarterstaff, and sling).

Level XP Hit Dice
1 0 1d8
2 2,000 2d8
3 4,000 3d8
4 8,000 4d8
5 16,000 5d8
6 32,000 6d8
7 64,000 7d8
8 120,000 8d8
9 240,000 9d8
10 360,000 9d8+2
11 480,000 9d8+4
12 600,000 9d8+6
13 720,000 9d8+8
14 840,000 9d8+10
15 960,000 9d8+12
16 1,080,000 9d8+14
17 1,200,000 9d8+16
18 1,320,000 9d8+18
19 1,440,000 9d8+20
20 1,560,000 9d8+22

Fighters include soldiers, guardsmen, barbarian warriors, and anyone else for whom fighting is a way of life. They train in combat, and they generally approach problems head on, weapon drawn.

Not surprisingly, Fighters are best at fighting of all the classes. They are also the hardiest, able to take more punishment than any other class. Although they are not skilled in the ways of magic, Fighters can nonetheless use many magic items, including but not limited to magical weapons and armor.

The Prime Requisite for Fighters is Strength; a character must have a Strength score of 9 or higher to become a Fighter. Members of this class may wear any armor and use any weapon.

Level XP Spells Hit Dice 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 0 1d4 1
2 2,500 2d4 2
3 5,000 3d4 2 1
4 10,000 4d4 2 2
5 20,000 5d4 2 2 1
6 40,000 6d4 3 2 2
7 80,000 7d4 3 2 2 1
8 150,000 8d4 3 3 2 2
9 300,000 9d4 3 3 2 2 1
10 450,000 9d4+1 4 3 3 2 2
11 600,000 9d4+2 4 4 3 2 2 1
12 750,000 9d4+3 4 4 3 3 2 2
13 900,000 9d4+4 4 4 4 3 2 2
14 1,050,000 9d4+5 4 4 4 3 3 2
15 1,200,000 9d4+6 5 4 4 3 3 2
16 1,350,000 9d4+7 5 5 4 3 3 2
17 1,500,000 9d4+8 5 5 4 4 3 3
18 1,650,000 9d4+9 6 5 4 4 3 3
19 1,800,000 9d4+10 6 5 5 4 3 3
20 1,950,000 9d4+11 6 5 5 4 4 3

Magic-Users are those who seek and use knowledge of the arcane. They do magic not as the Cleric does, by faith in a greater power, but rather through insight and understanding.

Magic-Users are the worst of all the classes at fighting; hours spent studying massive tomes of magic do not lead a character to become strong or adept with weapons. They are the least hardy, equal to Thieves at lower levels but quickly falling behind.

The Prime Requisite for Magic-Users is Intelligence; a character must have an Intelligence score of 9 or higher to become a Magic-User. The only weapons they become proficient with are the dagger and the walking staff (or cudgel). Magic-Users may not wear armor of any sort nor use a shield as such things interfere with spellcasting.

A first level Magic-User begins play knowing read magic and one other spell of first level. These spells are written in a spellbook provided by his or her master. The GM may roll for the spell, assign it as he or she sees fit, or allow the player to choose it, at his or her option. See the Spells section for more details.

Level XP Hit Dice
1 0 1d4
2 1,250 2d4
3 2,500 3d4
4 5,000 4d4
5 10,000 5d4
6 20,000 6d4
7 40,000 7d4
8 75,000 8d4
9 150,000 9d4
10 225,000 9d4+2
11 300,000 9d4+4
12 375,000 9d4+6
13 450,000 9d4+8
14 525,000 9d4+10
15 600,000 9d4+12
16 675,000 9d4+14
17 750,000 9d4+16
18 825,000 9d4+18
19 900,000 9d4+20
20 975,000 9d4+22

Thieves are those who take what they want or need by stealth, disarming traps and picking locks to get to the gold they crave; or “borrowing” money from pockets, beltpouches, etc. right under the nose of the “mark” without the victim ever knowing.

Thieves fight better than Magic-Users but not as well as Fighters. Avoidance of honest work leads Thieves to be less hardy than the other classes, though they do pull ahead of the Magic-Users at higher levels.

The Prime Requisite for Thieves is Dexterity; a character must have a Dexterity score of 9 or higher to become a Thief. They may use any weapon, but may not wear metal armor as it interferes with stealthy activities, nor may they use shields of any sort. Leather armor is acceptable, however.

Thieves have a number of special abilities, described below. One Turn must generally be spent to use any of these abilities, though the GM may amend this as he or she sees fit. The GM may choose to make any of these rolls on behalf of the player, at his or her option, to help maintain the proper state of uncertainty. Also note that the GM may apply situational adjustments (plus or minus percentage points) as he or she sees fit; for instance, it’s obviously harder to climb a wall slick with slime than one that is dry, so the GM might apply a penalty of 20% for the slimy wall.

Thief Abilities
Level Open Locks Remove Traps Pick Pockets Move Silently Climb Walls Hide Listen
1 25 20 30 25 80 10 30
2 30 25 35 30 81 15 34
3 35 30 40 35 82 20 38
4 40 35 45 40 83 25 42
5 45 40 50 45 84 30 46
6 50 45 55 50 85 35 50
7 55 50 60 55 86 40 54
8 60 55 65 60 87 45 58
9 65 60 70 65 88 50 62
10 68 63 74 68 89 53 65
11 71 66 78 71 90 56 68
12 74 69 82 74 91 59 71
13 77 72 86 77 92 62 74
14 80 75 90 80 93 65 77
15 83 78 94 83 94 68 80
16 84 79 95 85 95 69 83
17 85 80 96 87 96 70 86
18 86 81 97 89 97 71 89
19 87 82 98 91 98 72 92
20 88 83 99 93 99 73 95

Open Locks allows the Thief to unlock a lock without a proper key. It may only be tried once per lock. If the attempt fails, the Thief must wait until he or she has gained another level of experience before trying again.

Remove Traps is generally rolled twice: first to detect the trap, and second to disarm it. The GM will make these rolls as the player won’t know for sure if the character is successful or not until someone actually tests the trapped (or suspected) area.

Pick Pockets allows the Thief to lift the wallet, cut the purse, etc. of a victim without the victim noticing. Obviously, if the roll is failed, the Thief didn’t get what he or she wanted; but further, the intended victim (or an onlooker, at the GM’s option) will notice the attempt if the die roll is more than two times the target number (or if the die roll is 00).

Move Silently, like Remove Traps, is always rolled by the GM. The Thief will usually believe he or she is moving silently regardless of the die roll, but those he or she is trying to avoid will hear the Thief if the roll is failed.

Climb Walls permits the Thief to climb sheer surfaces with few or no visible handholds. This ability should normally be rolled by the player. If the roll fails, the Thief falls from about halfway up the wall or other vertical surface. The GM may require multiple rolls if the distance climbed is more than 100 feet.

Hide permits the Thief to hide in any shadowed area large enough to contain his or her body. Like Move Silently, the Thief always believes he or she is being successful, so the GM makes the roll. A Thief hiding in shadows must remain still for this ability to work.

Listen is generally used to listen at a door, or to try to listen for distant sounds in a dungeon. The GM must decide what noises the Thief might hear; a successful roll means only that a noise could have been heard. The GM should always make this roll for the player. Note that the Thief and his or her party must try to be quiet in order for the Thief to use this ability.

Finally, Thieves can perform a Sneak Attack any time they are behind an opponent in melee and it is reasonably likely the opponent doesn’t know the Thief is there. The GM may require a Move Silently or Hide roll to determine this. The Sneak Attack is made with a +4 attack bonus and does double damage if it is successful. A Thief usually can’t make a Sneak Attack on the same opponent twice in any given combat.

The Sneak Attack can be performed with any melee (but not missile) weapon, or may be performed bare-handed (in which case subduing damage is done; see the Encounter section for details). Also, the Sneak Attack can be performed with the “flat of the blade;” the bonuses and penalties cancel out, so the attack has a +0 attack bonus and does normal damage; the damage done in this case is subduing damage.

Cost of Weapons and Equipment


Monetary values are usually expressed in gold pieces. In addition to gold coins, there are coins made of platinum, silver, electrum (an alloy of gold and silver), and copper. They are valued as follows:

1 platinum piece (pp)= 5 gold pieces (gp)

1 gold piece (gp)= 10 silver pieces (sp)

1 electrum piece (ep)= 5 silver pieces (sp)

1 silver piece (sp)= 10 copper pieces (cp)

For game purposes, assume that one gold piece weighs 1/10th of a pound, and that five coins will “fit” in a cubic inch of storage space (this isn’t literally accurate, but works well enough when applied to a box or chest).

First level characters generally begin the game with 3d6 x 10 gp (unless the GM decides otherwise).


This list represents common adventuring equipment at average prices. Prices and availability may vary. Weights are expressed in pounds. Items marked * weigh very little; ten such items weigh one pound. Items marked ** have almost no weight and should not usually be counted.

Item Price Weight
Backpack 4 gp *
Belt Pouch 1 gp *
Bit and bridle 15 sp 3
Candles, 12 1 gp *
Chalk, small bag of pieces 2 gp *
Cloak 2 gp 1
Clothing, common outfit 4 gp 1
Glass bottle or vial 1 gp *
Grappling Hook 2 gp 4
Holy Symbol 25 gp *
Holy Water, per vial 10 gp *
Horseshoes & shoeing 1 gp 10
Ink, per jar 8 gp ½
Iron Spikes, 12 1 gp 1
Ladder, 10 ft. 1 gp 20
Lantern 5 gp 2
Lantern, Bullseye 14 gp 3
Lantern, Hooded 8 gp 2
Manacles (without padlock) 6 gp 4
Map or scroll case 1 gp ½
Mirror, small metal 7 gp *
Oil (per flask) 1 gp 1
Padlock (with 2 keys) 12 gp 1
Item Price Weight
Paper (per sheet) 1 gp **
Pole, 10′ wooden 1 gp 10
Quill 1 sp **
Quill Knife 1 gp *
Quiver or Bolt case 1 gp 1
Rations, Dry, one week 10 gp 14
Rope, Hemp (per 50 ft.) 1 gp 5
Rope, Silk (per 50 ft.) 10 gp 2
Sack, Large 1 gp *
Sack, Small 5 sp *
Saddle, Pack 5 gp 15
Saddle, Riding 10 gp 35
Saddlebags, pair 4 gp 7
Spellbook (128 pages) 25 gp 1
Tent, Large (ten men) 25 gp 20
Tent, Small (one man) 5 gp 10
Thieves’ picks and tools 25 gp 1
Tinderbox, flint and steel 3 gp 1
Torches, 6 1 gp 1
Whetstone 1 gp 1
Whistle 1 gp **
Wineskin/Waterskin 1 gp 2
Winter blanket 1 gp 3


Weapon Price Size Weight Damage
Hand Axe 4 gp S 5 1d6
Battle Axe 7 gp M 7 1d8
Great Axe 14 gp L 15 1d10
Shortbow 25 gp M 2
Shortbow Arrow 1 sp * 1d6
Silver† Shortbow Arrow 2 gp * 1d6
Longbow 60 gp L 3
Longbow Arrow 2 sp * 1d8
Silver† Longbow Arrow 4 gp * 1d8
Light Crossbow 30 gp M 7
Light Quarrel 2 sp * 1d6
Silver† Light Quarrel 5 gp * 1d6
Heavy Crossbow 50 gp L 14
Heavy Quarrel 4 sp * 1d8
Silver† Heavy Quarrel 10 gp * 1d8
Dagger 2 gp S 1 1d4
Silver† Dagger 25 gp S 1 1d4
Shortsword 6 gp S 3 1d6
Longsword/Scimitar 10 gp M 4 1d8
Two-Handed Sword 18 gp L 10 1d10
Hammers and Maces
Warhammer 4 gp S 6 1d6
Mace 6 gp M 10 1d8
Maul 10 gp L 16 1d10
Other Weapons
Club/Cudgel/Walking Staff 2 sp M 1 1d4
Quarterstaff 2 gp L 4 1d6
Pole Arm 9 gp L 15 1d10
Sling 1 gp S *
Bullet 1 sp * 1d4
Stone n/a * 1d3
Spear 5 gp M 5
Thrown (one handed) 1d6
Melee (one handed) 1d6
Melee (two handed) 1d8

* These items weigh little individually. Ten of these items weigh one pound.

† Silver tip or blade, for use against lycanthropes.

Weapon Size

Humans and Elves must wield Large weapons with both hands, but may use Small or Medium weapons in one hand. Halflings may not use Large weapons at all, and must use Medium weapons with both hands. Dwarves, due to their stocky, powerful builds, are able to use Medium weapons one-handed and some Large weapons in two hands, but Large weapons more than four feet in length are prohibited (specifically, two-handed swords, polearms, and longbows). Some weapons must be used with both hands by design (such as bows and crossbows) but the maximum size limits still apply.

The GM should apply similar limitations to weapon-armed monsters; for instance, kobolds and goblins are similar in size to Halflings, and thus should have similar weapon limits.

Missile Weapon Ranges

Weapon Short (+1) Medium (0) Long (-2)
Longbow 70 140 210
Shortbow 50 100 150
Heavy Crossbow 80 160 240
Light Crossbow 60 120 180
Dagger 10 20 30
Hand Axe 10 20 30
Oil or Holy Water 10 30 50
Sling 30 60 90
Spear 10 20 30
Warhammer 10 20 30

Missile weapon ranges are given in feet. In the wilderness, substitute yards for feet. If the target is as close as or closer than the Short range figure, the attacker receives a +1 attack bonus. If the target is further away than the Medium range figure, but not beyond the Long range figure, the attacker receives a -2 attack penalty.

Armor and Shields

Armor Type Price Weight AC
No Armor 0 gp 0 11
Leather Armor 20 gp 15 13
Chain Mail 60 gp 40 15
Plate Mail 300 gp 50 17
Shield 7 gp 5 +1

Beasts of Burden

Item Price
Horse, Draft 120 gp
Horse, War 200 gp
Horse, Riding 75 gp
Pony* 40 gp
Pony, War* 80 gp

*Due to their small stature, Dwarves and Halflings generally ride ponies rather than horses.

Explanation of Equipment

A Backpack will hold a maximum 40 pounds or 3 cubic feet of goods. Some items may be lashed to the outside, and thus count toward the weight limit but not the volume limit. A Halfling’s backpack holds at most 30 pounds and/or 1½ cubic feet, but costs the same as a full-sized item.

A Candle will shed light over a 5′ radius, with dim light extending 5′ further. A normal candle will burn about 3 turns per inch of height.

Chalk is useful for “blazing a trail” through a dungeon or ruin.

Holy Water is explained in the Encounter section.

Iron Spikes are useful for spiking doors closed (or spiking them open) and may be used as crude pitons in appropriate situations.

A Lantern will provide light covering a 30′ radius; dim light will extend about 20′ further. A lantern will consume a flask of oil in 18+1d6 turns. A Hooded Lantern allows the light to be hidden or revealed as the user pleases; in all other ways it performs as an ordinary lantern. A Bullseye Lantern projects a cone of light 30′ long and 30′ wide at the widest point, with dim light extending an additional 20′ beyond that point. This type of lantern is generally hooded.

A Map or Scroll Case is a tubular oiled leather case used to carry maps, scrolls, or other paper items. The case will have a water-resistant (but not waterproof) cap which slides over the end, and a loop to allow the case to be hung from a belt or bandolier. A standard scroll case can hold up to 10 sheets of paper, or a single scroll of up to seven spells.

A Mirror is useful in a dungeon environment for many reasons; for instance, it is the only way to look at a Medusa without being turned to stone. Mirrors are also useful for looking around corners, and can be used outdoors to send signals using reflected sunlight.

A Quiver is an open container used to hold arrows. A Bolt Case is a similar sort of container for crossbow bolts. In either case, the standard capacity is 20 missiles. The length of a quiver or bolt case must match the length of the ammunition for it to be useful; therefore, there are longbow and shortbow quivers and light and heavy crossbow bolt cases. The price is the same for all types.

Dry Rations may consist of dry bread, hard cheese, dried fruit, nuts, beans, jerky, or any other food which will not “go bad” in less than about a month (if not longer). Dry rations are generally sold in quantities sufficient for one character for a week, and are packaged in waxed or oiled cloth to protect them.

Hemp Rope is ½ inch in diameter and has a breaking strength of 1,600 pounds. Safe working load for a rope is normally one-quarter of the breaking strength. One or more knots in a rope cut the breaking strength in half. This does not affect the safe working load, because knots are figured into the listed one-quarter ratio.

Silk Rope is about 3/8 inch in diameter and has a breaking strength of 1,600 pounds, although it weighs considerably less than hemp rope. The notes regarding rope strength given for hemp rope, above, apply here also.

A Large Sack will hold at most 40 pounds or 4 cubic feet of goods.

A Small Sack will hold at most 20 pounds or 2 cubic feet of goods.

A pair of Saddlebags will hold at most 10 pounds or 1 cubic foot of goods (divided evenly between both bags).

Thieves’ Picks and Tools are required for the use of Thief abilities such as opening locks and removing traps. These abilities may not be usable without appropriate tools, or may be used at a penalty at the option of the Game Master.

A Tinderbox is generally purchased with a flint and steel; the flint, a piece of hard rock, is struck vigorously against a C-shaped piece of high-carbon steel. When done correctly, hot sparks will fly from the flint and steel into the tinder, hopefully starting a fire. The best tinder is a dried piece of prepared tinder fungus, carried in the tinderbox to keep it dry; char cloth, hemp rope, or even very dry grass can substitute if prepared tinder fungus is not available. The time required to start a fire should be determined by the GM according to the prevailing conditions; under ideal conditions, starting a fire with a flint, steel and tinder takes about a turn.

A Torch sheds light over a 30′ radius, with dim light extending about 20′ further, and burns for 1d4+4 turns. Of course, a torch is also useful for setting flammable materials (such as cobwebs or oil) alight.

A Whetstone is used to sharpen and maintain edged weapons such as swords, daggers, and axes.

Wineskin/Waterskin is a container for drinking water or wine; though generally water is taken into a dungeon or wilderness environment. The standard waterskin holds one quart of liquid, which is the minimum amount required by a normal character in a single day. If adventuring in the desert or other hot, dry areas, a character may need as much as ten times this amount. Note that the given 2 pound weight is for a full skin; an empty skin has negligible weight.


The following tables give details of various land and sea vehicles. Game Masters should feel free to create their own vehicles, in which case the table can be used for guidance. Some of the statistics given below are explained in detail later.

Land Transportation

Vehicle Length x width* Weight Cargo Movement Hardness / HP Cost (gp)
Chariot 15′ x 6′ 300 750 lbs 60′ (10′) 10 / 10 400
Coach 30′ x 8′ 1,000 2,000 lbs 40′ (15′) 6 / 12 1,500
Wagon 35′ x 8′ 2,000 4,000 lbs 20′ (15′) 6 / 16 500

*Includes hitched horses or mules.

Water Transportation

Vehicle Length x Width Cargo Crew Movement Miles/Day Hardness / HP Cost (gp)
Canoe 15′ x 4′ ½ ton 1 40′ (5′) 30 4 / 4 50
Caravel 55′ x 15′ 75 tons 10 20′ (20′) 42 8 / 75 10,000
Carrack 60′ x 20′ 135 tons 20 30′ (30′) 48 10 / 120 20,000
Galley, Small 100′ x 15′ 210 tons 90 20′ (20′) 36 / 24 8 / 75 15,000
Galley, Large 120′ x 20′ 375 tons 160 30′ (25′) 42 / 24 10 / 120 30,000
Longship 110′ x 15′ 10 tons 70 30′ (25′) 42 / 24 9 / 110 25,000
Raft/Barge per 10′ x 10′ 1 ton 2 40′ (10′) 18 6 / 12 100
Riverboat 50′ x 20′ 50 tons 10 20′ (20′) 30 8 / 30 3,500
Rowboat 15′ x 6′ 1 ton 1 30′ (10′) 24 6 / 8 60
Sailboat 40′ x 8′ 5 tons 1 40′ (15′) 36 7 / 20 2,000

Notes Regarding Vehicles

The Crew figure given reflects the minimum number of sailors and/or rowers needed to operate the ship. Officers are not counted among these numbers, and of course it is always a good idea to hire extra sailors and/or rowers to ensure that any casualties will not slow down the ship.

Cargo for wagons is given in pounds, while for ships it is given in tons. If the ship sails night and day, each passenger requires living space equivalent to one ton of cargo; in addition, provisions for one man for one month occupy 1/10 of a ton of space.

Movement is given separately here in feet (yards, actually; see Time and Scale in Part 4: The Adventure for an explanation) as well as miles per day. The encounter movement of ships is not directly related to the long-distance travel rate, since the crew must work hard to make the ship move quickly in combat, and this level of effort cannot be maintained day and night.

The parenthesized figure represents maneuverability; see Maneuverability in Part 5: The Encounter for details.

See Attacking a Vehicle, also in the Encounter section, for details on the Hardness and HP statistics.

A chariot requires a single horse, generally a warhorse, to pull it. Both coaches and wagons require at least a pair of draft horses to pull them.

A caravel is a highly maneuverable sailing ship with two or three masts. Though superficially similar to the larger carrack, caravels are capable of sailing up rivers, a task for which the larger ship is ill suited.

A carrack is a large, ocean-going sailing ship with three or four masts.

Galleys are equipped with both sails and oars; the second listed movement rate for galleys is the rowing speed. A small galley will have around 20 rows of oars, with each oar pulled by two men (for a total of 80 rowers) while a large galley will have around 35 rows of oars (for a total of 140 rowers). Galleys are generally much more maneuverable than sailing ships such as the carrack or caravel, and may be outfitted with rams.

The longship commonly used by northern raiders is very similar to the large galley. However, where more civilized nations have specialist rowers, sailors, and marines, the crew of a longship is more generalized; most crewmen will be qualified for all of these tasks.

Siege Engines

These are weapons used to attack strongholds, or sometimes ships. Their cost may be up to twice as high in a remote location. A siege engine that throws missiles (a ballista, onager or trebuchet) must have a trained artillerist to fire it; this is the character who makes the attack rolls for the weapon. Missile-throwing engines have attack penalties, detailed below. Note: siege engines are not generally usable against individuals or monsters; the GM may make exceptions for very large monsters like giants or dragons.

Weapon Cost Rate of Fire Attack Penalty Damage Short Range (+1) Medium Range (+0) Long Range (-2)
Ballista 100 gp 1/4 -3 2d8 50′ 100′ 150′
Battering Ram 200 gp 1/3 +0 2d8 N/A N/A N/A
Onager 300 gp 1/6 -6 2d12 100′ 200′ 300′
Trebuchet 400 gp 1/10 -8 3d10 N/A 300′ 400′

Ballista: This is effectively a very large crossbow that may fire a spear-like bolt or a large stone. It is usually mounted on a tripod or wagon, but may also be mounted on a ship. When firing bolts, a ballista cannot damage brick or stone. A ballista requires a crew of three to operate.

Battering Ram: These are usually operated under a sow (a sort of portable roof). They require a crew of eight or more.

Onager: This weapon throws a stone with a fairly flat trajectory. An onager requires a crew of four to operate.

Trebuchet: This mighty weapon uses a counterweight to fling a stone on a high, arcing path. It cannot fire at targets within 200 yards. If it is aimed at a target that is more than 20’ higher than the weapon, there is an additional –2 attack penalty. A trebuchet requires a crew of eight to operate.